By Leonard T. Skeggs, Frederic E. Dorer, Joseph R. Kahn, Kenneth E. Lentz (auth.), Irvine H. Page M.D., F. Merlin Bumpus Ph.D. (eds.)
The background of arterial high blood pressure is either lengthy and brief; lengthy, due to the fact that vivid (1827) first comparable hardness of the heart beat to hardness of the kidneys and hyper. trophy of the guts; brief in that glossy examine begun within the overdue twenties. such a lot of what we all know of those illnesses has been stumbled on some time past fifty years. the trendy tale must have began in 1897 while an extract of kidney was once proven to be pressor. yet little was once performed with wisdom until eventually approximately 1929 while the connection of this kidney extract referred to as "renin" to high blood pressure used to be pos· tulated. The pressor results have been, even though, in contrast to such a lot of these noticeable with sub· stances akin to epinephrine or vasopressin. Plasma used to be required for motion of renin and the energetic substance looked to be protein. In 1939, it used to be proven that renin used to be no longer in itself a pressor substance yet really a proteolytic enzyme which produced a strong pressor substance performing on a substrate synthesized by way of the liver. Later it was once famous that the 1st definable step after the formation of this peptide was once cleaving of the decapeptide which had very little demonstrable job, with lack of amino acids to shape the octapeptide referred to as "angiotensin". inside of a decade synthesis was once completed which made the substance to be had for world·wide study.
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A Direct ............ II II II ...... I II ...... 3 10 11 ...... I ............ 5f1Q/ml ~ Fig. 3. pig were perfused through the pulmonary artery with Krebs' solution at 10 ml/min. The effluent superfused a rat colon, the contractions of which are shown. Ang. I (I) or Ang. II (II) was infused for 3 min to give the concentrations shown (ng/ml). Direct infusion of Ang. 3 to 3 ng/ml) into the pulmonary effluent caused graded contractions of the colon. When Ang. II was infused through the lungs it gave a similar effect.
Assays, for the most part, are biological and imprecise. The validity of certain immunoassays is doubtful. Standardizations of assays are not always based on the same form of angiotensin, and frequently the purity of the standard is uncertain. Finally, there is no agreement on a uniform method for the expression ofresults. All these difficulties must be kept in mind in attempting to evaluate the apparently contradictory results which so frequently appear in this field. Angiotensin 13 References ANDERSON, R.
II within the wall of the vascular strip (Fig. 5) showed higher activity for pulmonary arteries (30 to 43 %) than for any other artery tested. Aortae of rats and carotid arteries of rabbits, cats and dogs exhibited much lower intramural conversion (5 to 10%) and celiac, renal, femoral and axillary arteries even less (0 and 4%). The high intramural conversion in strips of pulmonary artery is an interesting corollary of the high conversion in blood- or saline-perfused lungs. Converting enzyme might, I::