By John Langton, R. J. Morris
This atlas attracts jointly an important social and fiscal information on England, Scotland and Wales among 1780 and 1914, and offers a transparent consultant to the commercial improvement of significant Britain throughout the glossy interval.
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Additional info for Atlas of Industrializing Britain, 1780-1914
Infant mortality remained high until the 1890s, then fell sharply from 150–60 to around 100 in 1914 in England and Wales and from 117–38 to about 110 in Scotland. 22). Except during the Irish famine migration of the 1840s, Britain was a net exporter of people. 5 million over two centuries after 1750. 4m, though England was a net gainer from movements within the British Isles, especially from Ireland: Scotland gained from Ireland but lost to England. 23). 5m, 1841–1911. Registration districts on both clay (St Neots) and light soils (Louth) lost heavily, especially from the 1870s depression.
The core-periphery relationships that integrated British economy and society produced one sort of large-scale pattern, but they also intensified smaller-scale regional distinctions through encouraging specialization and competition. The provincial industrial regions were at first nourished through links to London which brought finance, techniques and access to wider markets. These links were never broken. Eventually they took back, through multiplier leakages, resources which strengthened London’s position.
Even higher quality haematite ore was present in the Carboniferous Limestone in south and north Wales, the Forest of Dean, Furness and Cumberland, whilst the lodes of iron ore that occur as siderite or chalybite in the same strata in the Pennines, Devon and Cornwall and the pockets of haematite and other iron ores in western Scotland gave rise to brief but frantic mining activity in the nineteenth century. After the exhaustion of the Carboniferous ores the majority of home-produced iron ore was raised from the lower quality Jurassic deposits, which are particularly abundant in Cleveland, north Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and north Oxfordshire.