By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on choosing and measuring skinny movie thickness through optical methods.
This functional booklet covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the speculation and perform of thickness size, and smooth functions. In so doing, it indicates the features and possibilities of optical thickness decision and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units in addition to their evaluate methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and subject. the most subject of this e-book, the decision of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack via measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses a number of commercial purposes of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands considering all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, technique regulate, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 functions (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
A more complex but exact theory has been developed [14–16] for various grating proﬁles, but so far only the maximum efﬁciency of these gratings has been calculated, not the angular or wavelength dependence of the efﬁciency. Volume gratings have been analyzed by Chang and George  using a Raman–Nath formalism modiﬁed to incorporate losses. 5 Diffraction beams for a multitude of practical cases, four second-order coupled wave equations are used. Signiﬁcant differences are found in comparison with computations where only two coupled waves are used.
The optical constants are taken from Ref. . As the imaginary part e2 of the dielectric function is zero and hence also k ¼ 0 for all wavelengths in this wavelength range, this material is transparent. The high refractive index of n > 2 results from strong interband transitions in the UV spectral range that can be described by harmonic oscillators (Brendel oscillators). Si3N4 is often used as antireﬂective coating for silicon wafer in photovoltaics or as hard coat for protection of surfaces.
2, we discuss Kramers–Kronig relations for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function. 3 we introduce empiric formulas for the refractive index. All models for the dielectric function and the refractive index are based on a parameterization of the corresponding quantity. 1 Models for the Dielectric Function Interaction of electromagnetic ﬁelds with matter is dominated by the forces exerted by the incident electric (and magnetic) ﬁeld on the electric charges in the matter. The electric ﬁeld E inside the body of condensed matter usually displaces only the electrons while the ions are too inert as to follow the electric ﬁeld with the same frequency.