By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch
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Extra info for Aging power delivery infrastructures
Such systems may have from three to five times the potential for customer service quality problems as traditional systems. Coupled with the higher failure rates caused by aging equipment, this creates a serious service quality handicap for the utility. Other Engineering and Planning Related Problems Power systems that operate with either an obsolete system layout and/or at high utilization rates are sensitive to more than just probability-related increases in interruption rates. The sensitivity of the system service quality to other problems increases exponentially.
3 looks at several fundamental physical "laws" that constrain T&D systems design. 6. 7, a number of different ways to lay out a distribution system are covered, along with their advantages and disadvantages. 8 covers the "systems approach," already mentioned in Chapter 1, and perhaps the single most important concept in the design of retail electric delivery systems, which aim to be both inexpensive and reliable. 2 T&D SYSTEM'S MISSION A T&D system's primary mission is to deliver power to electrical consumers at their place of consumption and in ready-to-use form.
System design at many utilities throughout the United States still follows specific styles and guidelines developed decades ago. Nearly every utility in the industry has slightly different preferences in how it lays out and specifies equipment for substations, how it routes, sizes, and switches feeders, how it designs its protection schemes and cOontingency backup plans, and how it operates its system at times of high stress. Every utility insists that its methods are best. But they can't all be correct - in fact few have it right, and all can learn by reviewing what other utilities do best.